Beltaine is described as the feast of the sun god Bel, Beil or Beul, some associated Bel with the Irish Fomorian god of the sun Balor, which would really be amazing for we would have a full annual circle described in one single myth the Second battle of Magh Tuiredh. Unfortunately we can’t be sure of it. What we can say is that this is a feast of the god Bel to which they offered sacrifices and lit fires in his honor.
It was also associated with rituals related to the cattle purification and summer movement to distant pasturages. There are evidences that the Celts used to make two fires in every territory of Ireland in honor of Bel and they solemnly drove a part of every herd of cattle between them to protect against diseases for the next year.
This feast was also a time to barter horses, arms and every sort of goods. It was a public assembly which marked the beginning of summer and of the all activities related with it, including the warrior activities such as the cattle raiding. Beltaine was also called Ceideamhain, indicating that it was the opposite of Samhain, the warm part of the year, ruled by the sun and the external activities, in opposition to the cold part, where the sun is weak an all activities are restricted by the weather.
In the first battle of Magh Tuired we have an interesting fact that the arriving of the Tuatha de Dannan in Ireland was ‘on Monday of the first week in May’. This would be a good mythological clue about the meanings of the festival, for it marks the arriving of the new gods, the beginning of their war against the Fomorians, and a new time of prosperity to the people of Ireland. So Beltaine marks a time of change, a time of danger and hard work, but on that will be rewarded with prosperity and wealth.